tamping vegetables in jar

Fermented Vegetables • Simple Essentials

Fermented Vegetables, Sauerkraut
Step-by-step guide to make fermented vegetables or sauerkraut at home. This recipe is very simple. To simplify even more, skip the apples and caraway seeds and only use cabbage. The culture starter is optional too but I do recommend it as it makes fermentation more stable and predictable. A starter also adds more beneficial bacteria.

Prep Time: 1 hour

  • Green cabbage
  • A few green apples
  • Culture starter (optional)
  • Sea salt or Himalayan salt
Create some fresh juice from cabbage or celery. Add the culture starter to the juice and let it stand in room temperature for 20 minutes or more while preparing the vegetables. Shred the cabbage and apples, add the juice with culture starter to the veggie mix and blend thoroughly. Pack veggies tight in glass jars and let ferment in room temperature for 6, 7 days. Taste on day 6 to see I veggies are ready. Make sure the brine completely covers the vegetables. Store in a cool place. Enjoy!

Fermented vegetables are greatly underestimated as a super food. Health benefits are so many and profound that you should try to consume fermented vegetables daily if possible. In this article “fermented vegetables” means naturally lacto-fermented vegetables without adding sugar, vinegar or other ingredients common in commercial products. There are other more advanced recipes.

Benefits of fermented vegetables

Fermented vegetables are packed with good, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, minerals and many other nutrients.

Fermented vegetables also…

  • contain healthy, potent lacto-bacteria affecting your health on a cellular level
  • promote growth of the natural bacteria already colonizing your intestine
  • break down harmful chemicals,and other unhealthy substances
  • support digestion of foods
  • increases assimilation of nutrients, vitamins, enzymes and omega-3 fats in your body
  • has a direct impact on your skin quality
  • treat allergy, eczema and asthma successfully

This list in just the beginning of many more benefits. Harnessing the power of fermented vegetables is surprisingly easy.

  • Don’t confuse commercially fermented vegetables with homemade, naturally fermented vegetables; there is a HUGE difference!

Fermented vegetables, step-by-step guide

In this example I use green cabbage which is cheap, nutritious and simple to ferment. Cabbage has a fresh taste and when fermented preserves a lovely crunchiness. You can of course add other vegetables too if you like. This particular recipe calls for whole caraway seeds. They add a distinctive taste to fermented cabbage and is also considered good for your digestion. But you can skip them if you don’t like the taste.

  • Organic vegetables: Organic vegetables are best. But  ordinary vegetables from your grocery store are also fine. The fermentation process breaks down many toxins like pesticides and other harmful substances making them harmless to your body. Still, organic vegetables often contain a higher amount of nutrients. Rinse the veggies thoroughly in water.
  • Salt or not?  Traditionally salt is used when fermenting cabbage. However, if you use the excellent celery juice as brine, you might want to use less salt because celery juice adds a mild, salty taste.
  • When to add salt? You have two options: 1. Add salt to the vegetable mix before fermentation, or 2. add salt only after fermentation is complete and before consuming. Adding a bit of salt at the start of the process might help preserve the crunchiness of the vegetables and prevent growth of bad bacteria.
  • How much salt? A concentration of up to 2-2.5 % is considered normal but I normally add less. In this recipe I added a few tablespoons. Use Himalayan or some other unprocessed salt like sea salt or Celtic Sea Salt.
  • Using a starter culture: Body Ecology makes good ones. Or try Dr. Mercola’s probiotic supplement as a starter. Use 2 capsules for every quart of vegetables. Dr Mercola’s starter produces larger concentrations of the valuable vitamin K2. Culture starters makes fermentation faster, more predictable and the final product will contain more beneficial bacteria—as many as trillions in a few tablespoons!

fermented vegetables

STEP ONE: Shredding cabbage and other vegetables

In many recipes green cabbage is the backbone of the veggie blend. Try adding the beautiful red cabbage. For variation you can add carrots, celery, sweet potatoes, parsley, ginger and coriander leaves. I here use cabbage, a few green apples, whole caraway seeds and sea salt.

If you’re preparing a small batch of fermented vegetables, shredding by hand is OK. But for bigger batches it’s much easier using a food processor like I do here.

NOTE: If using a starter culture, start with this. Mix the starter culture with freshly pressed celery or cabbage juice and leave it for at 20 minutes or more while shredding the vegetables. For 10 pounds of vegetables I use around 1-1.5 quarts of celery juice. The celery juice adds great flavor and many nutrients. If you don’t have a juice you can add water too.

fermenting vegetables

STEP TWO: Add juice, mix and squeeze vegetables

Pour the celery juice with starter culture over the vegetables and blend thoroughly with your hands. You want the starter culture thoroughly mixed with the veggies.

Use your hands or some tool to squeeze out more juice from the vegetables. Squeezing, pressing and beating the veggies a few minutes is enough.

fermented vegetables fermenting cabbage

STEP THREE: Pack vegetables hard in clean, air-tight jars

Use your fist to pack the vegetables to pack hard. Tamping presses air out and forces juice out and this promotes fermentation. I use my fist here but you can also use a kraut pounder; looks like a small baseball bat. Don’t fill the jar completely full but leave 25 % empty. Fermentation produces gas and makes the brine bubble like Champagne and if jars are too full too much juice might leak out.

fermented vegetables

STEP FOUR: Add enough liquid to completely cover vegetables

When the vegetables are tightly packed in the jars, add more juice if needed to completely cover the vegetables. Then add a cabbage leave on top that helps keep the vegetables in the brine. If some vegetables stay above the brine, they might turn brown or develop a bad taste. As you see in the picture, I added filtered water. Never use hot water as it will destroy the good bacteria.

fermenting vegetables
fermented vegetables

STEP FIVE: Leave the jars in room temperature to ferment

It takes two or three days for fermentation to reach a peak. Fermentation produces gas pressure increases in the jars causing brine may leak out. This is normal. However, it is wise to put the jars where you can easily clean up. The kitchen sink is a good place, at least until the wildest part of the fermentation process has resided.

NOTE: Avoid putting the lids on too tight on the jars to allow the increasing gas pressure to escape.

How long should the jars be kept in room temperature? I’ve tried everything between 5-12 days and it all works fine. But 6, 7 days seem to be a good average. This depends on the kind of vegetables and more important, room temperature. In a hot climate fermentation is difficult but possible. In a cooler climate 6, 7 days seems fine. The longer you keep the jars in room temperature, the tangier the taste. Try what works best for you! fermenting vegetables

STEP SIX: Store the vegetables in a cool place

After the 6, 7 days in room temperature you should store the jars in a cool place like a basement or a fridge. Fermentation will still continue, but the lower temperature slows down the process. You now have a living, breeding culture in your jars, turning the vegetables into great tasting and healthy super-food. If you used a culture starter (which I strongly recommend), then your fermented vegetables will be ready to eat right after the 6, 7 days of fermentation in room temperature.

Without a culture starter it takes a little longer for the taste to develop fully. It might take a few weeks until the acidic, fresh and complex taste develops.

NOTE: After you put the jars in a cool place, check brine levels in the jars during the next few days. If it is low and some vegetables are above the brine, then add some water or fresh vegetable juice.

fermented vegetables

STEP SEVEN: Enjoying fermented vegetables

The taste can be a bit different each time you make fermented vegetables. That’s the beauty of dealing with live culture and homemade fermentation. The taste should be tart and refreshing, great and yummy.

  • A tablespoon of fermented vegetables can contain much more beneficial bacteria that one quart yogurt.

Try consuming a few tablespoons or more with every meal. Consume more if you are treating IBS, inflammations, allergy etc. Some people might get a mild reaction when the probiotic bacteria enters the gut and starts pushing out bad bacteria, toxins and waste. Fermented vegetables promote a cleansing process. Adverse effects are almost always symptoms of cleansing.

Common problems with fermentation

The main reason for problems when fermenting vegetables is due to the presence of certain micro-organisms; they break down protein and produce undesirable flavor and texture changes. But this can easily be solved by following the advice in this post and create a normal lacto-fermentation process.

Why are the fermented vegetables too soft?

  • Too much air
  • Too little salt (does not apply if you use a culture starter since salt is not recommended)
  • Wrong temperature

Whenever the desired sequence of bacterial growth is changed or disturbed, it often results in soft vegetables.

Dark colored fermented vegetables

The reason for this is unwanted organisms during the fermentation process. For example, an uneven distribution of salt tends to disturb the good, healthy organisms but also allow the undesirable salt tolerant organisms to flourish. In addition, a common problem that I’ve had many times is a too low level of juice. This allow some bacteria and yeasts to grow on the surface of the vegetables not completely covered by juice. This cause discoloring and a bad flavor. Also, if the fermentation temperature is too high, it can stimulate the growth of undesirable microflora, which results in a darkened color. After fermentation is complete be sure to check the lever of the brine; it has a tendency to get low quickly in the beginning.

The fermented vegetables have a pink color

This is often caused by a group of yeasts that produce an intense red pigment in the juice and on the surface of the cabbage. The reason is an uneven distribution of or an excessive concentration of salt, both of which allow yeast to multiply. If conditions are optimal for normal fermentation, these spoilage yeasts are suppressed. If you use a culture starter, this never happens.

Fermented vegetables are live, active food. It’s a product of good cooperation between you and friendly bacteria.


  1. fleta delb says

    I have crohns and been trying to figure out what I can do to make it better, will fermentaed Vegs help me?

    • Ken says

      Crohn’s disease causes inflammation of your gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s most often affects a part of the small intestine known as the ileum. Swelling from the inflammation can be painful and often results in diarrhea.
      It is believed that Crohn’s is caused by how your immune system handles intestinal bacteria. Such autoimmune disorders mean your immune system is attacking and destroying healthy body tissue.

      Fermented foods have proved very beneficial for improving your gut health, enhance digestibility and nutrient assimilation. Fermented vegetables also have the potential to control inflammations. You can try a high quality probiotic supplement. However, homemade fermented vegetables are much more effective. If you use a culture starter the probiotic bacteria count is often much higher than any supplement you can buy.

      However, don’t forget that vitamin D3 is important to control Crohn’s. Vitamin D is created when your skin is exposed to the sun for about an hour a day. You can also take a vitamin D3 supplement if you can’t get enough sun.

  2. manya meyer says

    For crohn’s take up to 5 organic Brazil nuts a day (this will increase selenium in your system. 2-4 Tsp.coconut oil to diet, or just eat coconut macaroons. But start slowly and increase slowly to avoid constipation or diarrhea. also eat fermented veg’s.

  3. Tyler says

    Hi im interested in making this recipe but was wondering what are the measurements for everything? Like how much cabbage, apple, carrot, and cumin did you use? And same with the culture starter, like say if i were to half the amount you used would i only use half of a packet of the culture starter? Thanks and hope to hear from you soon

    • Ken Silvers says

      Hello Tyler.

      This is basically a sauerkraut recipe meaning that most of it is cabbage, just adding apples and cumin (or caraway seeds). Such recipes are common in Eastern Europe. In this recipe I used two apples and a few tablespoons of caraway seeds. Caraway seeds add a distinctive taste that many like. You will have to try how strong flavor you want. Many recipes of fermented vegetables that include apples recommend one or two apples. But it is good to experiment a little to see what you like. Apples won’t add a strong, distinctive taste.

      I did not use carrots in this specific recipe, but you can add carrots freely without worrying too much about exact weights. I often use 50-90% cabbage.

      About the culture starter: Normally you use the whole packet in one batch. If you fermented a bigger batch you might need two packets.